Does God exist?
The Bible begins with the statement: ‘In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth’ (Gen. 1:1). God’s existence is assumed, self-evident. In Psalm 14:1 we are told, ‘The fool has said in his heart, There is no God! They acted corruptly; they have done abominable works, there is none who does good.’
Here we see that the Bible connects corrupt thoughts about God—especially denying His very existence—with corrupt morals. And it is true that, if there is no God, no Creator who sets the rules, then we are set adrift morally. When the children of Israel forgot their Creator in the times of the Judges, when they had no one leading them in being faithful to God, ‘ … every man did that which was right in his own eyes’ (Judges 21:25), and chaos reigned.
We see the same thing happening today. Countries where the people once honored God, recognizing that ‘God was in Christ reconciling the world to Himself’ (2 Cor. 5:19), experienced unprecedented security and prosperity. Those same countries today are crumbling as people turn their backs on God. ‘Righteousness lifts up a nation, but sin is a shame to any people’ (Prov. 14:34).
As nations turn their backs on God, living as if He does not exist, sin abounds—political corruption, lying, slander, public displays of debauchery, violent crime, abortion, theft, adultery, drug-taking, drunkenness, gambling and greed of all kinds. Economic woes follow as taxes increase and governments borrow money to pay for bigger and bigger police forces, jails, and social security systems to patch up the problems.
Romans chapter one reads like a commentary on today’s world:
‘18For the wrath of God is revealed from Heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness, 19because the thing which may be known of God is clearly revealed within them, for God revealed it to them. 20For the unseen things of Him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead, so they are without excuse. 21Because, knowing God, they did not glorify Him as God, neither were they thankful. But they became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish hearts were darkened. 22Professing to be wise, they became fools 23and changed the glory of the incorruptible God into an image made like corruptible man, and birds, and four-footed animals, and creeping things. 24Therefore God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their hearts, to dishonor their own bodies between themselves. 25For they changed the truth of God into a lie, and they worshiped and served the created thing more than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen. 26For this cause, God gave them up to dishonorable affections. For even their women changed the natural use into that which is against nature. 27And likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust toward one another; males with males working out shamefulness, and receiving in themselves the recompense which was fitting for their error. 28And even as they did not think fit to have God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do the things not right, 29being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; being full of envy, murder, quarrels, deceit, evil habits, becoming gossips, 30backbiters, haters of God, insolent, proud, braggarts, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents, 31without discernment, covenant-breakers, without natural affection, unforgiving, unmerciful; 32who, knowing the righteous order of God, that those practicing such things are worthy of death, not only do them, but have pleasure in those practicing them.’
Many of those in the highest positions in government and education in the once great Christian nations the Bible would call ‘fools.’ They claim to be wise. But by denying the very existence of God, or His relevance to them today, they have become ‘fools.’
Underpinning this abandonment of faith in God is the widespread acceptance of evolutionary thinking—that everything made itself by natural processes; that God is not necessary. There is ‘design,’ such people will admit, but no Designer is necessary. The designed thing designed itself! This thinking, where the plain-as-day evidence for God’s existence (Rom. 1:19–20) is explained away, leads naturally to atheism (belief in no god) and secular humanism (man can chart his own course without God). Such thinking abounds in universities and governments today.
Some of the greatest evil seen has been perpetrated by those who have adopted an evolutionary approach to morality—Lenin, Hitler, Stalin, Mao Zedong, Pol Pot. Atheistic evolutionist Sir Arthur Keith acknowledged of Hitler:
‘The German Führer … is an evolutionist; he has consciously sought to make the practice of Germany conform to the theory of evolution.’1
Many millions have suffered terribly and lost their lives because of this atheistic way of thinking. Atheism kills, because without God there are no rules—anything goes! Atheists are at the forefront of efforts to legitimize abortion, euthanasia, drug-taking, prostitution, pornography and promiscuity. All these things cause misery, suffering and death. Atheism is the philosophy of death.
Now atheists love to point to atrocities committed by supposed ‘Christians’—the Crusades and Northern Ireland are favorites. If the people committing these terrible deeds were indeed Christians, they were/are being inconsistent with their own standard of morality (e.g., ‘do not murder,’ ‘love your enemies’). However, Stalin, for example, was being consistent with his, because, being an atheist (after reading Darwin), he had no objective basis for any standard of morality. Keith (above) admitted that Hitler was also consistent with his evolutionary philosophy.Christianity says ‘God is love,’ ‘love one another’ and ‘love your enemies.’ Such love is self-sacrificing. Consequently, Christians have been at the forefront in helping the sick, looking after the orphaned and the aged, feeding the hungry, educating the poor, and opposing exploitation through such things as child labor and slavery.
Atheism, with its evolutionary rationale, says ‘love’ is nothing more than self-interest in increasing the chances of our genes surviving in our offspring or our close relatives. In the ‘struggle for survival of the fittest,’ where is the basis for compassion? Hitler’s death camps grew out of his desire for the ‘Aryan race’ to win the battle for ‘the preservation of favored races in the struggle for life.’2
However, not only is atheism destructive, it is logically flawed at its very roots because there must be a Creator, as we shall see.
Biblical evidence for the existence of a divine author
The Bible, as well as proclaiming the existence of God, also bears witness that God exists, because only divine inspiration can explain the existence of this most remarkable of books. The characteristics that point to divine authorship are:3
The Bible’s amazing unity. Despite being penned by more than 40 authors from over 19 different walks of life over some 1,600 years, the Bible is a consistent revelation from the beginning to the end. Indeed the first and last books of the Bible, Genesis and Revelation, dovetail so perfectly—telling of ‘Paradise Lost’ and ‘Paradise Regained’ respectively—that they speak powerfully of their divine authorship (compare for example Gen. 1–3 and Rev. 21–22).
The Bible’s amazing preservation. In spite of political and religious persecution, the Bible remains. The Roman Emperor Diocletian, following an edict in A.D. 303, thought he had destroyed every hated Bible. He erected a column over the ashes of a burnt Bible to celebrate his victory. Twenty-five years later, the new emperor, Constantine, commissioned the production of 50 Bibles at the expense of the government! In the eighteenth century, the noted French infidel, Voltaire, forecast that within a century there would be no Bibles left on the earth. Ironically, 50 years after he died, the Geneva Bible Society used his old printing press and his house to produce stacks of Bibles. The Bible is today available in far more languages than any other book.
The Bible’s historical accuracy. Nelson Glueck, famous Jewish archaeologist, spoke of what he called ‘the almost incredibly accurate historical memory of the Bible, and particularly so when it is fortified by archaeological fact.’4 William F. Albright, widely recognized as one of the great archaeologists, stated:
‘The excessive skepticism shown toward the Bible by important historical schools of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, certain phases of which still appear periodically, has been progressively discredited. Discovery after discovery has established the accuracy of innumerable details, and has brought increased recognition to the value of the Bible as a source of history.’5
Sir William Ramsay, regarded as one of the greatest archaeologists ever, trained in mid-nineteenth century German historical skepticism and so did not believe that the New Testament documents were historically reliable. However, his archaeological investigations drove him to see that his skepticism was unwarranted. He had a profound change of attitude. Speaking of Luke, the writer of the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, Ramsay said, ‘Luke is a historian of the first rank … he should be placed along with the greatest of historians.’6
At many specific points archaeology confirms the Bible’s accuracy.7 There are many particulars where skeptics have questioned the Bible’s accuracy, usually on the basis of there being no independent evidence (the fallacy of arguing from silence), only to find that further archaeological discoveries have unearthed evidence for the biblical account.8
The Bible’s scientific accuracy. Some examples: that the earth is round (Isa. 40:22); the earth is suspended in space without support (Job 26:7); the stars are countless9 (Gen. 15:5); the hydrologic cycle;10 sea currents;10 living things reproduce after their kind;11 many insights into health, hygiene,12 diet,13 physiology (such as the importance of blood, e.g. Lev. 17:11); the first and second laws of thermodynamics (e.g. Isa. 51:6), and many other things.14
The Bible’s prophetic accuracy. The Bible states that the accurate foretelling of events is the province of God. God said:
‘I have foretold the former things from the beginning; and they went out of My mouth; and I made them hear; I acted suddenly; and they came about. … I declared it to you from the beginning. Before it happened I revealed it to you; lest you should say, “My idol has done them, and my graven image, and my molten image, has commanded them.”’ (Isa 48:3,5)
One will search in vain for one line of accurate prophecy in other religious books, but the Bible contains many specific prophecies. McDowell6 documents 61 prophecies regarding Jesus alone. Many of these, such as His place, time, and manner of birth, betrayal, manner of death, burial, etc., were beyond His control. McDowell also thoroughly documents 12 detailed, specific prophecies regarding Tyre, Sidon, Samaria, Gaza and Ashkelon, Moab and Ammon, Petra and Edom, Thebes and Memphis, Nineveh, Babylon, Chorazin- Bethsaida-Capernaum, Jerusalem and Palestine. He shows how these prophecies were not ‘post-dictions’ (that is, written after the event).
The probability of all these things coming to pass by chance is effectively zero. Only the wilfully ignorant (2 Peter 3:5) could deny this evidence that God must have inspired these prophecies.
The Bible’s civilizing influence. The Bible’s message elevated the blood-drinking ‘barbarians’ of the British Isles to decency. It is the basis of English common law, the American Bill of Rights and the constitutions of great democracies such as the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.
The Bible has inspired the noblest of literature—from Shakespeare, Milton, Pope, Scott, Coleridge and Kipling, to name a few—and the art of such as Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael and Rembrandt. The Bible has inspired the exquisite music of Bach, Handel, Haydn, Mendelssohn and Brahms. Indeed, the decline in acceptance of the biblical worldview in the West has been paralleled by a decline in the beauty of art.15
Today the message of the Bible still transforms. Animistic tribal groups in the Philippines are today still being delivered from fear, and former cannibals in Papua New Guinea and Fiji now live in peace, all because of the Gospel.The Bible’s absolute honesty. Someone has said, ‘The Bible is not a book that man could write if he would, or would write if he could.’ The Bible does not honor man, but God. The people in the Bible have feet of clay; they are shown ‘warts and all.’ Against the backdrop of their sinfulness and unfaithfulness, God’s holiness and faithfulness shine through.
Even the heroes of the faith (Heb. 11) have their failures recorded, including Noah (Gen. 9:20–24), Moses (Num. 20:7–12), David (2 Sam. 11), Elijah (1 Kings 19), and Peter (Matt. 26:74). On the other hand, the enemies of God’s people are often praised—for example, Artaxerxes (Neh. 2), Darius the Mede (Dan. 6), and Julius (Acts 27:1–3). These are clear indications that the Bible was not written from a human perspective.
The Bible’s life-transforming message. In San Francisco, a man once challenged Dr Harry Ironside to a debate on ‘Agnosticism16 versus Christianity.’ Dr Ironside agreed, on one condition: that the agnostic first provide evidence that agnosticism was beneficial enough to defend. Dr Ironside challenged the agnostic to bring one man who had been a ‘down-and-outer’ (a drunkard, criminal, or such) and one woman who had been trapped in a degraded life (such as prostitution), and show that both of these people had been rescued from their lives of degradation though embracing the philosophy of agnosticism. Dr Ironside undertook to bring 100 men and women to the debate who had been gloriously rescued through believing the Gospel the agnostic ridiculed. The skeptic withdrew his challenge to debate Dr Ironside.
The message of the Bible mends lives broken by sin, which separates us from our holy Creator. In contrast, agnosticism and atheism, like all anti-God philosophies, destroy.
Other evidence for the Creator-God of the Bible17
The universal tendency of things to rundown and to fall apart shows that the universe had to be ‘wound up’ at the beginning. It is not eternal. This is totally consistent with ‘In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.’ (Gen. 1:1).
The changes we see in living things are not the sorts of changes that suggest that the living things themselves came into being by any natural, evolutionary, process. Evolution from molecules to man needs some way of creating new complex genetic programs, or information. Mutations and natural selection lead to loss of information.
The fossils do not show the expected transitions from one basic kind of organism to another. This is powerful evidence against the belief that living things made themselves over eons of time.
Evidence that the universe is relatively ‘young’ also contradicts the belief that everything made itself over billions of years. Because the events are so improbable, lots of time is thought to help the cause of the materialists.
The traditions of hundreds of indigenous peoples from around the world—stories of a global Flood, for example—corroborate the Bible’s account of history, as does linguistic and biological evidence for the closeness of all human ‘races.’
The explosion in knowledge of the intricate workings of cells and organs has shown that such things as the blood clotting system could not have arisen by a series of accidental changes. The instructions, or information, for specifying the complex organization of living things is not in the molecules themselves (as it is with a crystal), but is imposed from outside. All this demands an intelligent Creator who vastly exceeds our intelligence.
The myth of atheism and science
Many today think that science is anti-God. Atheists encourage this view by claiming that their way of thinking is ‘scientific.’ In claiming this, they are merely redefining science to exclude God. In fact, science began to flourish only when the biblical view of creation took root in Europe as the Reformation spread its influence. The presuppositions that enabled a scientific approach to investigating the world—that the created universe is real, consistent, understandable, and possible to investigate, for example—came from the Bible. Even non-Christian historians of science such as Loren Eiseley have acknowledged this.18 Consequently, almost every branch of science was either founded, co-founded, or dramatically advanced, by scientists who believed in the Bible’s account of Creation and the Flood.19,20 And there are many scientists today who believe the Bible.21
Is it science?
Science has given us many wonderful things: men on the moon, cheap food, modern medicine, electricity, computers, and so on. All these achievements involve doing experiments in the present, making inferences from these results and doing more experiments to test those ideas. Here, the inferences, or conclusions, are closely related to the experiments and there is often little room for speculation. This type of science is called process, or operational, science, and has given us many valuable advances in knowledge that have benefited mankind.
However, there is another type of science that deals with the past, which can be called historical, or origins, science. When it comes to working out what happened in the past, science is limited because we cannot do experiments directly on past events, and history cannot be repeated. In origins science, observations made in the present are used to make inferences about the past. The experiments that can be done in the present that relate to the past are often quite limited, so the inferences require a deal of guesswork. The further in the past the event being studied, the longer the chain of inferences involved, the more guesswork, and the more room there is for non-scientific factors to influence the conclusions—factors such as the religious belief (or unbelief) of the scientist. So, what may be presented as ‘science’ regarding the past may be little more than the scientist’s own personal worldview. The conflicts between ‘science’ and ‘religion’ occur in this historical science, not in operational science. Unfortunately, the respect earned by the successes of operational science confounds many into thinking that the conjectural claims arising from origins science carry the same authority.
When it comes to historical science, it is not so much the evidence in the present that is debated, but the inferences about the past. Scientists who believe the record in the Bible, which claims to be the Word of God,22 will come to different conclusions from those who ignore the Bible. Wilful denial of God’s Word (2 Peter 3:3–7) lies at the root of many disagreements over ‘historical science.’
Who created God?23
The skeptic asks of Christians, ‘If God created the universe, then who created God?’ But God by definition is the uncreated creator of the universe, so the question ‘Who created God?’ is illogical, just like ‘To whom is the bachelor married?’
So a more sophisticated questioner might ask, ‘If the universe needs a cause, then why doesn’t God need a cause? And if God doesn’t need a cause, why should the universe need a cause?’ The following reasoning stands up to scrutiny:
Everything which has a beginning has a cause.24
The universe has a beginning.
Therefore the universe has a cause.
It is important to stress the words ‘which has a beginning.’ The universe requires a cause because it had a beginning, as will be shown below. God, unlike the universe, had no beginning, so does not need a cause. In addition, Einstein’s general relativity, which has much experimental support, shows that time is linked to matter and space. So time itself would have begun along with matter and space at the beginning of the universe. Since God, by definition, is the creator of the whole universe, He is the creator of time. Therefore He is not limited by the time dimension He created, so He has no beginning in time. Therefore He does not have, or need to have, a cause.
In contrast, there is good evidence that the universe had a beginning. This can be shown from the Laws of Thermodynamics, the most fundamental laws of the physical sciences.
1st Law: The total amount of mass-energy in the universe is constant.
2nd Law: The amount of energy in the universe available for work is running down, or entropy25 is increasing to a maximum.
If the total amount of mass-energy is limited, and the amount of usable energy is decreasing, then the universe cannot have existed forever, otherwise it would already have exhausted all usable energy and reached what is known as ‘heat death.’ For example, all radioactive atoms would have decayed, every part of the universe would be the same temperature, and no further work would be possible. So the best solution is that the universe must have been created with a lot of usable energy, and is now running down.26
Now, what if the questioner accepts that the universe had a beginning, but not that it needs a cause? But it is self-evident that things that begin have a cause—no one really denies it in their heart. All science, history and law enforcement would collapse if this law of cause and effect were denied.27 Also, the universe cannot be self-caused—nothing can create itself, because it would need to exist before it came into existence, a logical absurdity.
The universe (including time itself) can be shown to have had a beginning.
It is unreasonable to believe something could begin to exist without a cause.
The universe therefore requires a cause, just as Genesis 1:1 and Romans 1:20 teach.
God, as creator of time, is outside of time. Therefore, He had no beginning in time, has always existed, and so does not need a cause.28,29
Whichever way you look at it—the evidence from the Bible, the incredibly complex, organized information in living things, or the origin of the universe—belief in an all-powerful, all-knowing Creator God, as revealed in the Bible, not only makes sense, but is the only viable explanation.
The Christian knows God!
To one who is a genuine Christian, there is no doubt about God’s existence. The Bible says,
‘For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God. For you have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you have received the Spirit of adoption by which we cry, Abba, Father! The Spirit Himself bears witness with our spirit that we are the children of God.’ (Rom. 8:14–16)
The Bible here says that Christians have a personal relationship with God. This is the testimony of those who have realized their sinfulness in the sight of Almighty God and the dire consequences of their sin, have repented of their sin, and have accepted the forgiveness of God made possible through Jesus’ death and resurrection. All such genuine Christians have received the Holy Spirit of God and so have assurance that they are ‘children of God.’ They can indeed know that they have eternal life (1 John 5:13).
Non-biblical evidence for the Creator God of the Bible
1. Natural law
There is a universal tendency for all systems of matter/energy to run down.30 Available energy is dissipated and order is lost. Without either a programmed mechanism or intelligent action, even open systems31 will tend from order to disorder, from information to non-information, and towards less availability of energy. This is the reason why heat flows from hot to cold, and why the sun’s energy will not make a dead stick grow (as opposed to a green plant, which contains specific, pre-programmed machinery to direct the energy to create a special type of order known as specified complexity).
Applied to the origin of the first life, this denies that such specified complexity can possibly arise except from outside information impressed on to matter. Applied to the whole universe, which is acknowledged as winding down to ‘heat death’ (that is, ‘cosmos to chaos’), this implies a fundamental contradiction to the ‘chaos to cosmos, all by itself’ essence of evolutionary philosophy.32,33
So, the universe had to be ‘wound up’ at the beginning and it could not have existed eternally. This requires some agent outside the universe to wind it up—just as a clock cannot wind itself!
2. Living things
Observed changes in living things head in the wrong direction to support evolution from protozoan to man (macro-evolution).
Selection from the genetic information already present in a population (for example, DDT resistance in mosquitoes) causes a net loss of genetic information in that population. A DDT-resistant mosquito is adapted to an environment where DDT is present, but the population has lost genes present in the mosquitoes that were not resistant to DDT because they died and so did not pass on their genes. So natural selection and adaptation involve loss of genetic information.
From information theory and a vast number of experiments and observations, we know that mutations (copying mistakes) are incapable of causing an increase in information and functional complexity.34 Instead, they cause ‘noise’ during the transmission of genetic information, in accordance with established scientific principles of the effect of random change on information flow, and so destroy the information.35 Not surprisingly, several thousand human diseases are now linked to mutations.
This decrease in genetic information (from mutations, selection/adaptation/speciation and extinction) is consistent with the concept of original created gene pools—with a large degree of initial variety—being depleted since.
Since observed ‘micro’ changes—such as antibiotic resistance in bacteria and insecticide resistance in insects—are informationally down-hill, or at best horizontal, they cannot accumulate to give the required (uphill) changes for ‘macro’ evolution, regardless of the time period.36
These small changes are erroneously used as ‘proofs of evolution’ in biology courses, yet they cannot be extrapolated to explain ameba-to-man evolution. Such extrapolation is like arguing that if an unprofitable business loses only a little money each year, given enough years it will make a profit. The observed changes do, however, fit a Creation/Fall model well.
Although Darwin expected millions of transitional fossils to be found, none have been found, except for a mere handful of disputable ones. Evolutionist Dr Colin Patterson of the British Museum of Natural History responded as follows to a written question asking why he failed to include illustrations of transitional forms in a book he wrote on evolution:
‘ … I fully agree with your comments on the lack of direct illustration of evolutionary transitions in my book. If I knew of any, fossil or living, I would certainly have included them. You suggest that an artist should be used to visualize such transformations, but where would he get the information from? I could not, honestly, provide it, and if I were to leave it to artistic licence, would that not mislead the reader?
‘I wrote the text of my book four years ago. If I were to write it now, I think the book would be rather different. Gradualism is a concept I believe in, not just because of Darwin’s authority, but because my understanding of genetics seems to demand it. Yet Gould and the American Museum people are hard to contradict when they say there are no transitional fossils. As a palaeontologist myself, I am much occupied with the philosophical problems of identifying ancestral forms in the fossil record. You say that I should at least “show a photo of the fossil from which each type of organism was derived.” I will lay it on the line—there is not one such fossil for which one could make a watertight argument.’37
Even the often-claimed transition between reptiles and birds, Archaeopteryx, shows no sign of the crucial scale-to-feather or leg-to-wing transition. While it is always possible to maintain faith in evolution by belief in unobservable mechanisms,38 the evidence of such a systematic paucity of the anticipated evolutionary ‘links’ on a global scale is powerful, positive support for biblical creation, regardless of any argument about how and when fossils may have formed.
4. The age of things
The evidence for a ‘young’ earth/universe is, by definition, evidence for biblical creation, as naturalistic evolution, if it were at all possible, would require eons. There is much evidence that the universe is relatively young,39 such as the decay of the earth’s magnetic field, including rapid paleomagnetic reversals,40 fragile organic molecules in fossils supposedly many millions of years old,41 not enough helium in the atmosphere,42 not enough salt in the sea,43 carbon-14 in coal and oil supposedly millions of years old, polystrate fossils that extend through strata supposedly representing many millions of years, inter-tonguing of non-sequential geological strata,44 small number of supernova remnants,45 magnetic fields on ‘cold’ planets, and much more (see What about carbon dating?).
Elapsed time extending back beyond one’s own lifetime cannot be directly measured, so all arguments for either a long or a short age are necessarily indirect and must depend on acceptance of the assumptions on which they are inevitably based.
Young-earth arguments make sense of the fact that many fossils show well-preserved soft parts. This requires rapid deposition and rapid hardening of the encasing sediment for such fossils to exist. Observations of multiple geologic strata and canyons, for example, forming rapidly under catastrophic conditions in recent times, indicate that the entrenched slow-and-gradual, vast-age thinking may well be markedly in error.46,47
5. Cultural-anthropological evidence
Hundreds of world-wide traditions among indigenous peoples about a global Flood, each with features in common with the biblical account, provide evidence of the reality of that account. Also widespread, but less so, are accounts of a time of language dispersal. Linguistic and biological evidence has recently revealed a hitherto unrealized genetic closeness among all the ‘races’ of people (see How did all the different ‘races’ arise?--Chapter 18), consistent with a recent origin from a small population source. This denies the previously widely held belief that human races evolved their characteristic features during long periods of isolation. Molecular studies suggest that, relatively recently, one woman provided the mitochondrial DNA which gave rise to the sequences in all people alive today.48 Such evidence may be squeezed into an evolutionary model, but it was not a direct prediction of it. However, it is directly consistent with biblical creation.
6. Design and complexity
Incredibly complex coordinated biological systems are known in which no conceivable part-coordinated, part-functioning, simpler arrangement would be other than a liability.49 Some examples are the blood-clotting mechanism, the bacterial flagellum (used for propulsion), the photosynthetic apparatus, and the pupal transformation of caterpillars to butterflies. Examples abound in living things.
The immense complexity of the human brain, its creativity and power of abstract reasoning, with capacities vastly beyond that required for sheer survival, is perhaps the most ‘obvious’ evidence for intelligent creation.
At the molecular level, the organization that characterizes living things is inherently different from, for example, a crystal arrangement. The function of a given protein, for instance, depends upon the assembly sequence of its constituents. The coded information required to generate these sequences is not intrinsic to the chemistry of the components (as it is for the structure of a crystal) but extrinsic (imposed from outside).
During reproduction, the information required to make a living organism is impressed upon material substrates to give a pre-programmed pattern, by systems of equal (or greater) complexity (in the parent organism/s) which themselves had the same requirement for their formation. Without pre-programmed machinery, no spontaneous, physico-chemical process is known to generate such information-bearing sequences—this requires the operation of outside intelligence.
The most reasonable inference from such observations is that outside intelligence was responsible for a vast original store of biological information in the form of created populations of fully functioning organisms.50 Such intelligence vastly surpasses human intelligence—again consistent with the concept of God as revealed in the Bible